Why Donors Give: Motivations for Their Gifts

The following article is provided courtesy of Robert Russell, President and founder of RR&A.Since 1976, RR&A has provided consulting services in marketing, management, and fundraising to businesses and charitable organizations.  RR&A works with organizations to define their challenges and design effective strategies for long-term growth and impact.

Over the past forty years, our business has had the good fortune to conduct more than 200 numerically sampled donor constituency surveys.These constituencies included hundreds of philanthropists who support higher education, home schooling, special education, health care, rehabilitative health care and services, public policy institutions and think tanks, arts centers and academies, libraries, and others.

Each survey probed the constituent’s philanthropic goals and ideals.  Relative to the sponsoring organization, we asked the donor’s sense of American institutions generally and the sponsor organization.  The surveys also requested demographic information, including age, gender, education levels, marital and family status, community involvement, religion and political preferences, and specific affiliations with the institutions he or she supports.

Tax Time: Top Tips for Reporting Charitable Deductions

With April 15 fast approaching, now is the time to make the most of charitable tax deductions.  Many people give significant amounts to charities, schools, religious institutions, and other nonprofit organizations, with an accompanying expectation of tax deductibility.  Through such giving, donors not only help worthy causes but also can reduce their personal tax liability through itemized deductions.  Here are some top tips for maximizing the charitable tax deduction.

1)         Use the right tax forms.

Online Fundraisers and Tax-Exempt Status

Do nonprofits that engage in online fundraising activity as their principal activity qualify for tax-exempt status under IRC Section 501(c)(3)?  The IRS recently said no to three nonprofit applicants, denying their requests for tax-exempt status.[1] One applicant operated an online retail store, with profits from sales going to the charity of the buyer’s choosing.  The other two applicants obtained most or all of their funding by charging fees for their fundraising services to nonprofit organizations.

Many nonprofit organizations that engage primarily in fundraising activities have historically qualified for Section 501(c)(3) status, including “Friends Of” organizations that send charitable funds raised to foreign programs, nonprofits that raise money for special causes such as medical research, and organizations that operate “donor advised funds” (DAFs) by which donors direct payments to other charitable organizations.  What went wrong for the online fundraising organizations here? 

The three IRS decisions have sparked dialogue in the nonprofit tax arena about whether fundraising by itself constitutes a qualified charitable activity for purposes of 501(c)(3).  Here’s what all nonprofit leaders can learn from the IRS rulings. 

First Key Requirement:  Tax-Exempt Purpose

First, in all three denial letters, the IRS focused on the organizations’ substantial commercial activities, noting the absence of any other significant activities.  To qualify as tax-exempt under Section 501(c)(3), an organization must be primarily “organized” and “operated” for certain purposes, such as religious, educational, or charitable purposes.  The IRS asserts that raising money – by itself – is not inherently a religious, educational, or charitable activity.   Consequently, the IRS and courts have consistently ruled that organizations engaging primarily in commercial activities will not qualify for tax-exempt status merely because they turn over their profits to charity.